Original Blenkinsop cog rail with two chairs, 1812.
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Patentee: John Blenkinsop (1783-1831). Blenkinsop designed a rack rail and driving wheel system in 1811. He worked at Middleton Collieries near Leeds and devised a rack and pinion system for railway locomotives. This consisted of a cogwheel on the locomotive which locked into special teeth in a rack on one side of the rail. This was particularly succesful in mountain railways.