Caligraph typewriter, 1883.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
This machine was designed in the United States by George Washington Yost after he broke away from Remington, makers of the first succesful typewriters, in 1880. As in the Remington, the type bars are positioned below the paper carriage, preventing the typist seeing what is being typed, but the basic mechanism is quite different and gives a lighter, more even touch. Yost also introduced an automatic reversing mechanism to make maximum use of the ribbon. There are separate keys for every character, so that no shift key is needed.