Five printed circuit boards, 1980s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Printed circuit boards shown at various stages of manufacture. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) have been an important factor in the development of mas production methods in the electronics industries. A typical PCB is made by taking a phenolic resin paper laminate which has a copper layer on the surface, printing the circuit design on the copper, and then etching away the copper not protected by the printing ink using a solution of ferric chloride. These PCBs were made by GSPK Circuits Ltd.