Edward I, 1291, (c 1950s).
© NRM / Pictorial Collection / Science & Society Picture Library
British Railways carriage print of the 1950s showing Edward I holding his parliament at Ashridge Park, near Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire. Edward I (1239-1307) was the son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence and was famous for his crusades to the Holy Land. Returning to the country in 1274, he led campaigns in Wales and Scotland to gain territory for England. Although successful in Wales, he failed to subdue the Scots and was killed leading his army against Robert Bruce in 1307. Ashridge was turned into a monastery and later a royal residence, before finally being replaced by the mansion which was begun in 1808.