John W Draper, American pioneer of scientific photography, c 1860.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
John W Draper (1811-1882) emigrated to America from Britain in the early 1830s where he taught chemistry at a number of universities. In the winter of 1839/1840 Draper took the first photographs of the moon, and in 1843 the dark violet lines in the solar spectrum. He was awarded the Rumford Medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1875.