Pascal's calculating machine, 1642 (replica
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Pascal's calculating machine, 1642 (replica). Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), was France's most celebrated mathematician and physicist. This calculator is an exact replica of an original calculating machine preserved in the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers at Paris. It was completed by him in 1642, when he was only 19, to aid his father in his business; it was designed for addition and subtraction, using a stylus to move the number wheels.