Joseph Locke, English civil engineer and railway builder, 1845.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by Henry Cousins after a painting by Sir Francis Grant (1803-1878). In 1823 Locke (1805-1860) became a pupil of George Stephenson (1781-1848) and surveyed a number of railways for him. After ten years, he broke away from Stepehenson and built a large number of important railways both in Britain and on mainland Europe. His lines were generally straight and avoided expensive tunnelling, but in doing so they sometimes adopted gradients that were too steep for economical running.