Pierre-Paul Broca, 1824-1880.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Pierre-Paul Broca was a pioneer neurologist, surgeon and anthropologist. He developed the theory of the localisation of brain functions. Based on observations of patients with brain damages, Broca developed the concept of left hemisphere dominance for speech. Also a passionate anthropologist, in 1858 he established the first anthropological laboratory, at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes in Paris.