In 1860 a French mining engineer, Benoit Rouquayrol (1826-1875), invented a self-contained breathing apparatus which could be used to rescue miners overcome by fumes. With the help of Auguste Denayrouze (1837-1883), the equipment was modified for underwater use by the French Navy. This was the first self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Illustration from 'Underground life, or, Mines and miners' by Louis Simonin (1830-1886), published in London in 1869.
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