Petrus Ramus, French philosopher and logician, 16th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Portrait made in 1763 of Petrus Ramus or Pierre de la Ramee (1515-1572). Ramist logic started from a premise and then looked for evidence, rather than drawing conclusions from observation. Although no longer relevant in modern thought, for a time Ramist logic influenced Francis Bacon and John Milton among others. Ramus fled to Germany during religious wars, but on his return to Paris in 1570 he was killed in the St Bartholomew's Day masacre. Illustration from 'Histoire des philosophes modernes' (History of modern philosophers), by Alexandre Saverien (1720-1805), published in Paris in 1763.