Archimedes' screw, 1856.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Chromolithograph by E Wormser of the hydraulic screw whose invention is traditionally ascribed to Greek mathematician Archimedes (c 287-212 BC). Turning the handle at the top makes a ball travel up the helical tube. This device is still in use in many parts of the world for raising water. Illustration from 'Grands dessins colories pour l'enseignement de la mecanique / composes sous la direction de M le General Morin ... et par les soins de M Tresca', by Arthur Jules Morin (1795-1880), published in Paris in 1856. The collected 30 plates were sold in a portfolio, but could also be bought as a series or separately, and were produced for the purpose of instructing the general public in the intricacies of mechanical engineering.