Grand Junction Railway Locomotive 'Columbine', 1845.
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'Columbine' was one of the first locomotives to be built at the Grand Junction Railway's new Crewe Works and typifies the motive power used on main line railways at the time. It was one of a series of locomotives intended to be built to a standard design to replace a large number of locomotives from different makers that were then used at the time. Columbine appeared during Britain's second 'railway mania', when an enormous number of railway proposals were submitted to Parliament. Columbine hauled passenger trains until 1877 and was finally withdrawn in 1902. The Grand Junction Railway, running from Birmingham to a junction with the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, was Britain's first trunk railway when it opened in 1837. It was engineered by Robert Stephenson and Joseph Locke.