Mamluks and Bedouin soldier, 1804.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by J Chapman after Denon, showing 'A Mamaluke on Horseback, with a Pieton or Foot Mamaluke, and a Bedouin Arab Soldier'. Mamluks, or Mamelukes, belonged to a warrior caste which was created from non-Muslim slave boys. They were trained as cavalry soldiers and converted to Islam. Illustration from 'Encyclopaedia Londinensis, or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature' published in London, 1810-1829.