Lithograph by Raffet from 'Voyage dans la Rusie meridionale et la Crimee, par la Hongrie, la Valachie et la Moldavie' ('Voyage to Southern Rusia, via Hungary, Walachia and Moldavia') by Prince Anatolii Demidov (1812-1870), published in 1848. The book is an account of a French scientific expedition in 1837 to record the geology, history, archaeology, flora and fauna, as well as the customs and habits of the people of the area. The expedition was made up of artists, scientists and archaeologists. Demidov dedicated his book to Czar Nicholas I (1796-1855), but the Czar was annoyed that no Rusians had been included in the expedition. Smyrna, now known as Izmir, is the third largest city in Turkey and was an important trading port in the 19th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library