Fleming's original thermionic valves, 1889. Made by John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945) for experiments on an effect seen in early electric lamps. The source of current is a heated negative electrode, the cathode. Current flows through the vacuum to the positive electrode, the anode. In 1899 Fleming became a technical adviser to the Marconi Company, helping design the Poldhu transmitter in Cornwall, used in Marconi's 1901 transatlantic transmissions. Fleming later developed these valves as sensitive detectors of radio signals.
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