Philipp Reis, German inventor, late 19th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraved portrait of Philipp Reis (1834-1874) inventor of the 'artificial ear', one of the early telephones. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) is usually credited as the first to invent the telephone. However Reis, the Italian Antonio Meucci and the American Elisha Gray were also working on similar devices during the same period. Illustration from 'Die ElektricitAt im Dienste der Menschheit' (Electricity in the service of mankind) by Alfred Ritter von Urbanitzky (b 1852), published in Vienna in 1885.