Iron mine shaft, Dannemora, Sweden, 19th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving entitled 'Die Eisenbergwerke bei Dannemora', (The Eisenberg works near Dannemora). Miners use long ladders to acces the mine shaft; winding gear is used to raise and lower buckets. The Dannemora mines have been producing iron ore since the 15th century. The mines are a series of around 40 deep, steep-sided quarries. The ore has a very high percentage of metal within it, sometimes as much as 90 %, which enables iron and steel of very high quality to be produced from it.