Engraving of the Great Wall of China, stating it to be 1200 miles long; it is in fact 1500 miles or 2400 kilometers long. The wall was built to protect China from northern nomads; the earliest sections date from the third century BC, while much of the wall was built during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). Here, we see the Rusian ambasador to China, Evert Ysbrants Ides and his retinue on the left, with a convoy of Daourchian cosacks going down the hill towards the gate. Also labelled are 'idol temples', Chinese guards and watchtowers. In the distance are a caravan of laden horses and camels, and the city of Xogon Koton. From 'Three Years Travels from Moscow over-land to China' by Ides, published in London in 1706.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library