'View of a Hut in New South Wales', Australia, c 1788.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by T Medland after R Clevely, showing a European's idea of what Australian aboriginals looked like. In 1787, British naval commander Arthur Phillip (1738-1814) led the 'First Fleet' carrying convicts to Australia. The day of his landing at Botany Bay, 26 January 1788, was later celebrated as Australia Day. Phillip founded a penal colony at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, and was made Governor (colonial administrator) of New South Wales. The native aboriginal people were marginalised and persecuted for the next two hundred years. Illustration from Phillip's 'The voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay', published in London in 1789.