Archimedian screw, winding gear and pulleys, 1737.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Archimedes (c 287-212 BC) is one of the most celebrated figures of the ancient world. He founded the science of hydrostatics, the study of the presure and equilibrium of fluids. He is famous in popular tradition for shouting 'Eureka' when he realised that the level of water in his bath rose when he got into it. The Archimedean screw is still used for raising water. Illustration from 'Notizie istoriche e critiche intorno alla vita, alle invenzioni, ed agli scritti di Archimede siracusano' (Historical and critical information about the life, inventions and writings of Archimedes of Syracuse) by Count Giammaria Mazzuchelli (1707-1765), published in Brescia, Italy in 1737.