Map of the Moon, 9 February 1645.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
The Dutch scientist and engineer, Michel Van Langren (1600-1675) produced the first map of the Moon in 1645. Titled 'Plenilunii Lumina Austriaca Philippica', the lunar map was produced as an aid to finding longitude at sea. It was intended that the user could use the illumination of the Moon's surface, the darkening of the lunar mountains, as an accurate guide to its age and phase. These were to be used in conjunction with lunar eclipses and observations of the satellites of Jupiter to determine the time anywhere on the Earth.