Fire Brigadier, 1843.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Plate taken from the 'Illustrated London News'. The introduction of the pump and hose in the late 17th century had represented a significant advance in firefighting, but the drawback was that the pump had to be worked by a team of men stationed on either side of the fire engines. This was solved in the 1860s by the introduction of the steam pump. The fireman carries a closed-in lamp and wears a protective air-tight mask. Helmets with air-pumps designed for fire-fighting and later used in diving, were developed by English inventors John and Charles Deane in 1823.