Measuring velocity, 1736.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving showing a hunter following a bird in flight with his gun. The hunter adjusts his position and aim from left to right. A group of Ancient Greek philosophers write algebraic formulae and gesticulate as they hold discusions. Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) theories exerted a huge influence on science. They included the binomial theorem, the three laws of motion, the theory of gravitation and the law of cooling. His invention of differential calculus appeared to be simultaneous with, and independent of, Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716), Newton's rival. The dispute as to which of the two men invented calculus was only partially resolved in 1711 and was never fully settled. Illustration from 'The method of fluxions and infinite series' by Isaac Newton (1642-1727), published in London in 1736.