Distillation furnace, 1512.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Woodcut showing distillation using a water-bath and apparatus terminating in a 'Rosenhut', literally rose-hat. This was a high conical alembic which was cooled by air. It was commonly used for making liqueurs. Illustration from 'Liber de arte Distillandi de Compositis' (Book of the art of distillation of compound bodies) by Hieronymus Brunschwig (c 1450-c 1512) published in Strasbourg in 1512. Brunschwig's works are chiefly concerned with the preparation of medicines, but include such alchemical preparations such as the Quintesence and Potable Gold. They are also the source for some of the earliest images of chemical apparatus.