Michael Faraday, English physicist, 1861.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Plate taken from the 'Illustrated London News'. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) discovered the principles of the electric motor and dynamo. Faraday's great life work was the series 'Experimental Researches on Electricity', published for over 40 years in 'Philosophical Transactions', in which he described his many discoveries including electromagnetic induction (1831), the laws of electrolysis (1833) and the rotation of polarised light by magnetism (1845). He also introduced the concept of the 'field' to the study of electricity and magnetism. Faraday was Directory of the Laboratory at the Royal Institution from 1825 until 1861, where he gave many lectures, often to young audiences.