Charles Darwin, English naturalist, 1871.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) came up with his famous theory of evolution while employed as a naturalist on HMS Beagle (1831-1836). His most famous work, 'The Origin of Species', was published in 1859. Although Darwin avoided the discusion of religious isues, its implications attracted vehement denials. This portrait was printed in the Illustrated London News to mark the publication of his second work 'The Descent of Man', in which he traces human life back to 'a group of marine animals, resembling the larvae of existing Ascidians'. Despite fears that this work would arouse further recriminations, the review by the ILN was positive, deeming his critics 'illogical'.