Herbert Spencer, English social philosopher, 1870.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Photogravure c 1910, after a photograph taken by Elliott & Fry in 1870, of Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), social philosopher, and one of the first English sociologists. In 1850 Spencer published 'Social Statics', which stresed the importance of individual freedom and the inevitability of progres. He was also an advocate of social Darwinism, which applied Charles Darwin's (1809-1882) theory of the survival of the fittest to human society. From a collection of portraits published by Photographische Gesellschaft, Berlin, c 1910. Dimensions: 460mm x 340mm.