Sir William Robert Grove, lawyer and physicist, c 1860.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Carte de visite photograph by the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Company. Grove (1811-1896) devised the first fuel cell. His 'Grove gas voltaic battery' of 1839 was actually a fuel cell. Grove realised that the current came from a chemical reaction. He went on to make the first electric filament lamp in 1845. The following year he established the theory of mutual convertibility of forces. He was also a barrister and QC, member of the Royal Institution, and profesor of experimental philosophy at the London Institution.