Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, Dutch mathematical physicist, c 1910s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Etching. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) was born in Arnhem, Holland and attended the University of Leyden, where he received a doctorate in physics in 1875. In 1878, he was given the position of Chair of Theoretical Physics at the University, and remained in this post for most of his life. He developed James Clerk Maxwell's (1831-1879) theory of electromagnetism, revolutionising conceptions of the nature of matter. In 1902, with his asistant Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943), he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his theory of electromagnetic radiation, which helped to lay the foundations of relativity. Published by the International Telecommunication Union (1955-1964).