Joseph Black, Scottish chemist, c 1780s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by C Cook after an original oil on canvas painting by Henry Raeburn. Black (1728-1799) was appointed Profesor of Anatomy and Chemistry at the University of Glasgow in 1756, and, in 1766, Profesor of Medicine and Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh. Whilst at Edinburgh, Black discovered the gas carbon dioxide, which he described as 'fixed air'. He is widely considered to be the 'father' of quantitative chemistry. He was a pioneer in chemistry of gases and originator of the theory of specific and latent heat. Published by William Mackenzie, Edinburgh.