Sir Hiram Maxim, American engineer and inventor, 1904.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Chromolithograph by Vincent Brooks, Day and Son Ltd of a caricature by Leslie Ward, better known as Spy, from 'Vanity Fair' magazine. Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (1840-1916) began his career as a coachbuilder at an engineering works in Fitchburg, Masachusetts. From 1867 he took out patents for several inventions, including gas equipment and electric lamps. His interests then turned to automatic firearms and he moved to London, where he developed the Maxim machine-gun in 1883. In 1885 he demonstrated the world's first automatic portable machine-gun to the British Army. Many other European armies had purchased the gun by the 1890s. He also invented a pneumatic gun, a silencer, a smokeles gunpowder, a mousetrap, carbon filaments for light bulbs and a flying machine.