Lorenz Heister, German surgeon, 18th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by Haid after a painting from life by Froling. Lorenz Heister (1683-1758) studied anatomy under Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731), and served as an army surgeon before becoming profesor of anatomy and surgery at Altdorf. He published 'Chirurgie' (1718), drawing on the leading French authorities of the time. 'Chirurgie', with copious illustrations, was an influential work and soon became the standard text on surgery and was widely reprinted and translated. The English version of 1748 was the first systematic treatise on surgery in that language. Heister was the first to study the pathology of appendicitis, and the first to use the term tracheotomy. He is depicted here with a disected hand hanging behind him.