Franz Joseph Gall, German anatomist and phrenologist, c 1800.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by Dequevauviller. Gall (1758-1828) gave popular lectures on phrenology (the study of the shape and size of the skull as a supposed indication of mental abilities and character). His ideas, including the theory that a person's talents and qualities were traced to particular areas of the brain, were seen as being subversive of religion. Phrenology has been long since discredited.