Albert Einstein, German mathematical physicist, 1929.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Pencil drawing by M C Rosenbauer, signed by both the artist and Einstein. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), was a theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to physics. His Special Relativity Theory (1905) posits that time does not exist at the same rate for everyone and everything, and produced the equation which expreses the equivalence between matter and energy: E=mc squared. His General Relativity Theory (1915), an extension of Special Relativity, makes much bigger predictions. In 1921, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics. Because of his political stand against the Nazis, Einstein had to leave Germany and went to live in the United States of America, taking citizenship.