Herbert Spencer, English social philosopher, 1870.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Chromolithograph by Vincent Brooks Day and Son Ltd of a caricature by Francis Carruthers Gould ('CG'), from 'Vanity Fair' magazine. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was a social philosopher, and one of the first English sociologists. In 1850 he published 'Social Statics', which stresed the importance of individual freedom and the inevitability of progres. Spencer was also an advocate of social Darwinism, which applied Charles Darwin's (1809-1882) theory of the survival of the fittest to human society. Dimensions: 400mm x 270mm.