Gamma Type 2 engine, c 1968.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Britain's Black Arrow was a three-staged satellite launch vehicle. A Gamma Type 2 engine (a two combustion-chambered design that burned kerosene in hydrogen peroxide) propelled the second stage. Its design drew heavily on that of the Gamma engines of the Black Knight ballistic test vehicles and the Stentor engine of the Blue Steel stand-off bomb. Black Arrow R3 launched the Prospero technology satellite on 28th October 1971.